kanjijump

Learn the kanji through components and connections.

Sound components

While the kanji constitute a logographic script, they're not just little pictures of the things they represent. In fact, the vast majority of kanji were created on the basis of sound.

Out of the 3,500 most important kanji, 75% either include or serve as a sound component.

What is a sound component?

To understand the role of sound in the formation of the kanji, we have to look back to ancient China, where the script originated.

When the speakers of Old Chinese had to write down a word for which no character had been invented yet, they turned to one strategy time and time again:

  1. Find a character that has a vaguely related meaning.
  2. Find a character for a word that sounds alike.
  3. Squish the two characters together!

Case study: the character 星 star

For instance, take the Old Chinese word for "star", which sounded something like sleng. Following that process, some ancient Chinese folks created the character for star more or less like so:

  1. Find a character that has a vaguely related meaning.
    Stars appear in the sky, like the sun. So we'll take the character sun.
  2. Find a character for a word that sounds alike.
    Sleng sounds just like the Old Chinese word for live, so we'll take the character live.
  3. Squish the two characters together!
    sun + 生 sleng = 星 star!

When a kanji component has been used for its sound value, like 生 here, it's known as an 音符 onpu in Japanese, meaning something like "sound indicator". Since they are a subset of the kanji components, I refer to them here as sound components.

What does this have to do with modern Japanese?

Something like half of all Japanese words have Chinese roots. In addition to being written in kanji, these words are pronounced using Japanese approximations of ancient Chinese sounds. These Sino-Japanese pronunciations of the kanji are called 音読み on'yomi, meaning sound readings.

An awareness of the kanji's sound components will go a long way towards helping you pronounce words read using on'yomi. Once in a while, you might even be able to guess the pronunciation of words containg kanji or readings that you've never encountered before.

An example: the sound component 生

For example, if you know any of the following words:

  • 先生 sensei (teacher)
  • 学生 gakusei (student)
  • 生活 seikatsu (life)

...then you know that the kanji 生 live has the on'yomi セイ sei.

With the knowledge that 生 can serve as a sound component, you have an immediate advantage when learning words like the following:

  • 火星 kasei (Mars)
  • 姓名 seimei (first and last name)
  • 性格 seikaku (personality)

As you can see, even though the characters' readings don't have much to do with the original Chinese pronunciations anymore, the sound components still provide us with some useful information as students of Japanese. Kanji that sounded similar in ancient China still tend sound similar in modern Sino-Japanese words.

Sound components and meaning components

To be clear, it's not always as easy as in the examples above! Some sound components only vaguely hint at a character's sound, via rhyme or looser connections, obscured by the passage of time. Moreover, the fact that a component can serve as a sound mark doesn't mean that it always does. For example, 産 give birth is pronounced not as セイ sei, but サン san.

But even the absence of a sound component can tell you something about a kanji. To illustrate, let's take that same example 産, where the component 生 fails us as a sound indicator.

When we learn that 産 give birth is read as サン san, we know right away that 生 live is not a sound component. And since it's not being used for its sound, we can deduce that it's most likely being used for its meaning instead. Indeed, the meanings of 生 live and 産 give birth are closely related: birth is the start of life. Components used in this way are called meaning components (in Japanese 意符 ifu). They provide you with a focal point for remembering the meaning of the character.

Sound components and meaning components go hand in hand; awareness of one enhances your awareness of the other. Together, they reveal the logic behind the structure of the kanji. Kanjijump helps you stay attuned to the presence of sound components by clearly indicating them prominently in multiple places. In this way, you can not only remember the kanji's pronunciation better, but you can also gain insight into its structure and meaning.

What about the kun'yomi?

There are also native Japanese readings, the 訓読み kun'yomi, meaning expository readings, and these are just as important as on'yomi. Some kanji are used primarily for their kun'yomi, with their on'yomi seldom appearing in modern Japanese. A few kanji, being native Japanese inventions (国字 kokuji), don't even have an on'yomi.

But the name 読み on'yomi (sound reading) hints that the Chinese-derived pronunciations somehow embody the kanji's essential sound. Accordingly, in Kanjijump, the kun'yomi take a backseat to the on'yomi and English keywords. The kun'yomi are treated in character entries, but the Kanjijump UI prioritizes the on'yomi throughout.

Now, a kanji doesn't really have one essential sound. But learners will benefit from treating the on'yomi this way during kanji study. Paying special attention to the on'yomi has some practical advantages. The first has already been mentioned above: an understanding of on'yomi and sound indicators helps you identify meaning indicators. These is key to understanding the logic behind a character's structure. Another benefit applies when you're quizzing yourself on a kanji's meaning.

Using sound components to differentiate kanji with similar meanings

If you've gotten beyond the very beginning stages of your studies, you've likely come across the problem of kanji with similar meanings. Say you're studying with flashcards, and you come to a flashcard with the English keyword use on the front. You definitely know the kanji 使 use, but you slip up and give the answer 用 utilize instead--now what? If you're using paper flashcards, do you put the card back in the pile? If you're using something like Anki, do you mark this card as a failure, and lose your progress, even if you're sure you know that kanji?

This is a minor problem in the grand scheme of things, and if it hasn't bothered you in your studies, you don't have to worry about it, at least for now. But in case this is something that has bothered you in the past, you can remedy the situation by including the on'yomi when you're testing your recall of kanji meanings.

The chance for confusion is much smaller when you quiz yourself with cards looking like:


  • utilize
  • ヨウ
    use

Just for the sake of thoroughness, here's another example of two kanji with similar meanings, who also share a component: 欄 and 柱. Normally, the similarity in shape and meaning could easily throw you off.

  • チュウ
    pillar
  • ラン
    column

If you know your sound components and , it's nearly impossible to mix up the two.

If you're worried that this makes things too easy, remember that when you get to the point where you're actually writing out or typing a Japanese word in real life, you will likely have both the pronunciation and meaning in your mind before you think of the kanji. In this way, a kanji-recall quiz starting from the kanji's meaning and reading might actually be a better test of your skills than a kanji-recall quiz from meaning alone.

Now, Kanjijump is still in its early stages, so many of the on'yomi prominently displayed throughout may be rare or even obsolete in modern Japanese. However, even nonsense syllables have their place in education--ask any musician who has studied solfege. You could do worse than to keep a few extra on'yomi in your head.

The 810 sound components

These are all the components that are used for their sound value in the 3,500 most important characters in modern Japanese. A component is only included here if either:

  1. the component is used for its sound value in two or more of those 3,500 characters
  2. the component itself corresponds to one of those 3,500 characters.

Kanjijump aims to include etymological information only when it can help the student of Japanese see connections between important characters. For that reason, components that have their origins as sound indicators but do not meet the above criteria have been excluded from this list.

Below the on'yomi in katakana, the Middle Chinese reading is given.

Used in 15+ characters:


wrapping
ホウ
pprau


spoon

ppi


embankment*
ケイ
kkuei

plants*
セイ
shrang


perching bird*
サイ
tchyui

white
ハク
brak

square
ホウ
vâng

can

ka

early riser*
シャ
tchya


notch*
カク
kkâk

supporting hands*
ケイ
kken


shore*

fu

Used in 12+ characters:

丿
swiping hand*
ヘツ
yei


baby*
ショウ
sieu


tool*
コウ
kkung

strong arm*
リョク
liok

arrow

syi

old

kku

clenching mouth*
コン
kkim

mother

mou


tunnel*
ケイ
kkeng


piles*
ホウ
lei


coin*
セン
dzan


order
レイ
lien

swordsman*
セン
tsiem


ward

kiu

Used in 11+ characters:


tail*

si

blue
セイ
tseng


germinate*

you

gravestone*
ショ
ttsio

high
コウ
kkau


sad*


point*

duai

Used in 10+ characters:


blade
トウ
ttau


cliff
ガイ
ngre


tree trunk*
カン
kkan

block
チョウ
ttrang


temple

zi

stork
カン
kkuan


beans
トウ
dou

bucket*
ヨウ
yûng

sunshine*
ヨウ
yâng

advocate*
ショウ
jyâng


deceased
ボウ
mvâng

surplus

yio


unit
タン
ttan


chopping hand*
ハン
bran

add

kkra

resemblance
ショウ
sieu

unite
ヘイ
ppieng


flank
キョウ
kkrap

Used in 8+ characters:


inch*
スン
tsuon

corded arrow
ヨク
yok

woman
ジョ
nio

join
ゴウ
ghap


silver*
コン
kkon


sheep
ヨウ
yâng


mile*

li


good
リョウ
liâng


skin

bi


sound
オン
im

daybreak
タン
ttan

basket*

gi


heaps
ジュウ
driûng

direct
チョク
driok


opposite
ハン
phan

deer legs*

bi

platform
ダイ
yi


capital
キョウ
kkiang

divination
セン
tchyem

mix
コウ
kkrau

valley
コク
kkuk

bone
コツ
kkuot


tiger stripes

khu

monk*
ソウ
ttsong


bundle
ソク
syûk

purple*

tsi

flying dragon*
シン
jyin

truth
シン
tchyin


sunset*
バク
mâk

place in order
バン
van

wrap up
ホウ
pprau

graduate
ソツ
ttsuit


wicked lawmaker*
ヘキ
biek

commander
ショウ
ttsiâng


engraving
ロク
luk


pleasant*

yu


brew*
ジョウ
siâng


awning*
カツ
ghat

Used in 7+ characters:


come out
シュツ
chyui

cloud*
ウン
yiun

arrive

tchyi

part
ブン
fun

few
ショウ
syeu


crossed legs*
キュウ
kkiou

tablespoon*
シャク
tchyâk

five

ngu

bed
ショウ


spouted bucket*
ヨウ
yûng

next

tsi


arm

tchyi

sea*
マイ
muoi


adhere

fu

roll
カン
güen


army
グン
kkiun

origin
ゲン
ngüan

summon
ショウ
drieu

boss

si

even
セイ
dzei


insomniac*
エン
üan

peak*
ホウ
vûng

ruffled bird*
ケキ
drak


open jar*
ヨウ
you

Used in 6+ characters:


one
イチ
it

earth

tu

grabbing hand*
ユウ
you


standing person*
リツ
lip


child

ttsi

grain

ghua

axe
キン
kkion

leviathan*

ppra

rope*

kki

altar

gi


ear

nji

door

ghu


brush
イチ
yuit


create*

jra

proper
セイ
tchyeng

soft leather

yuî

strange

gi

necessary
ヒツ
ppit

light
コウ
kkuâng

tower*

liu


hotpot*
カイ
krue

omen
チョウ
drieu

abundance*
フク
vuk

dragon
リュウ
liûng


roll of cloth
ヒキ
shio


wide
コウ
kkuâng


hog*
ガイ
ghoi

uncle*
シュク
syuk

choke

tchim


dawn*
ギョウ
ngeu


thus

nji


birds chirping
ソウ
sau

blade of grass
タク

phonetic "man"
マン
muan

letter
カン
kkran

muffled speaking*
ヘン
luan

sour*
シュン
tsuin

dawdle
リョウ
liong

Used in 5+ characters:


rice field
デン
den

footprint*

tchyi


seashell
バイ
ppai

teacher*
タイ
ttuoi


pattern
ブン
mvun

river
セン
chyuen


fortunate
キチ
kkit

snub-face*
コウ
kau


pond*

ya

ahead
セン
sen


chief
シュ
tchyu

together
キョウ
kkiûng

each other
ソウ
siâng

crossed out*

fou

younger brother
テイ
dei


giant
キョ
gio

everyone
カン
ghram

unfinished spear*

yio


sell
バイ
mre


half
ハン
ppuan

enlightenment*

ngu

phrase

giu

leafy tree
ヨウ
yep

bottom*
テイ
ttri

east
トウ
ttung

crashing dagger-axe*
ショク
tchyok

territory*
ワク
ghuok

revelation
コク
kkau

yellow
コウ
ghuâng


twist
キュウ
kkiou


music
ガク
ngrau


set
テイ
deng

reaching arms*
キュウ
gip

Han*
ナン


long-tailed monkey

ngiu

obscure
ゲン
ghuen

climb
トウ
ttong

spear

miou

flame
エン
yem

concurrently
ケン
kkem

vitrine*
テキ
ttek

gutter*
コウ
kkou

haughty
キョウ
kkieu

fang

ngra

vermillion
シュ
tchyu

flat
ヘン
pien

palisade*
ユウ
you

inspection
カン
kkram

lowly

ppi


shrimp*

kkra

chrysanthemum*
キク
kkiuk

cash*
ヘイ
biei

chicken-farmer*
ケイ
ghei


mane*

liep


chin*
ガク
ngâk

gust*
リュウ
leu

Used in 4+ characters:


tree
ボク
muk


table

kki

stallion*

ngu

shawl*
モチ
mvut

mortar
キュウ
giou


member
イン
yiun

stone
セキ
jyek

take
シュ
tsiu

I

nga

sapling*

mvî

grotto*
ドウ
dung

become
セイ
jyeng

also
エキ
yek

lad
ゲン
ngien


administer
イン
yuin

change

khrua

woods
リン
lim

duke
コウ
kkung

meet
カイ
ghuai


calamity
ヨウ
ieu

righteous

ngi

spitting mouth*
トウ
tou

huddle*
リン
luin

responsible*
ニン
njim

this

jyi

underground*

ra


relax
アン
an

circuit
シュウ
tchyou

ape*
エン
yuan

office
カン
kkuan

fruit

kkua

delicious

tchyi

fish
ギョ
ngio

evening
メン
mien


display
テイ
drieng

scorpion*
マン
mvan


window*
ソウ
tsung


storehouse
ソウ
tsâng

hard

kku

hornless dragon

li

liable
セキ
tchrak

participate
サン
shim


autumn
シュウ
tsiou

long time
キュウ
kkiou

uncle
シュク
syuk

horned pig
タイ
zui

hill
コウ
kkâng

robust
ソウ
tchiâng


address
エン
üan

hide*
イン
ion


Wu

ngu


revered
ソン
ttsuon

emperor
テイ
ttei

stationing
トン
ttruin

cliffside forest*
レキ
lek


flea
ソウ
ttsau


general
ハン
buan

firm
カン
kan

pocket
カイ
ghruai


juvenile
ドウ
dung

salad*
キン
gin


Shu
ショク
jyûk

melon

kkrua

Buddha*
フツ
fut

neck
コウ
kkâng

railing
ラン
lan


barbarian

ghu
寿
longevity
ジュ
jyou


reverse*
ゲキ
ngiak

space*

yu

slack*
エン
yuan

colleague*
リョウ

pitfall
カン
kam


extract
バツ
buat

fumigation
クン
khiun


decameron
ジュン
zuin

Used in 3+ characters:


fortune teller*
ボク
ppuk


see
ケン
kken

gentleman

ji

gate
モン
muon

middle
チュウ
ttriung

shell
コウ
kkrap

air

kiî


clan

tchyi

long-haired person*
チョウ
driâng


know

ttri

monkey*
シン
syin

watchdog*
ジュツ
suit

reside
キョ
kki

idea

i

lifting hands*

bird
チョウ
tteu


substitute*
ダイ
doi

acrid
シン
sin

timber*
サイ
dzoi


broom
ソウ
tchyou

level
ヘイ
bien

eminent
タク
ttrâk


be there
ユウ
you

set out
ハツ
fat


warp and weft*

giî


step
カイ
kkrai

breeze*
ボン
vam

festival
サイ
ttsiei

morning
チョウ
ttrieu

young
ジャク
njia

introduce
カイ
kkrai

flow*
リュウ

dispute
ソウ
tchrang


loss
シツ
syit

path

lu

riverside*
セン
yuen

break
セツ
dei

winter
トウ
ttûng

concern
ネン
nem

demand
キュウ
giou

upward-looking*
キョウ
ngâng

hemp

mra

court
テイ
deng

center
オウ
iâng

build
ケン
kkian

suckling babe*

phu

exceeding
ジン
jyim

complying
ジュウ
dziûng


chieftain
シュウ
dziou

contents
ヨウ
yûng

outstanding
ユウ
you

dumbfounded
ホウ

question

ngi

sweet
カン
kkam

observance
ホウ
vûng

cause
イン
in

edge*
タン
ttuan

wild boar
キョ
gio

government body

fu

sink*
イン
you

tip
マツ
muat

sect
シュウ
ttsûng

chapter
ショウ
tchyâng

hem*
タン
tuan


male*
コウ

loot*
ワク

gather
サイ
tsoi

bonnet*
チン
tchyin

home
タク
drak

companion
ホウ
bong

phonetic "ya"

ya

toad*
ボウ
min


brain
ノウ


so-and-so
ボウ
mou

granary
リン
lim

cooperation
キョウ
ghep

prosperous
ショウ
chyâng

snake pole*

ta

require
ジュ
siu

boast

krua

tomb*
フン

yield over

ui

shield
ジュン
jyuin

exposure
ケン
ngap


spy
エキ
yek

pledge
ケイ
kei

pottery
トウ
dau

grass forage
スウ
chiu

whetstone
レイ
liei


solemn
シュク
siuk


hostess*
アン

magic spell*
サン
dzan


hut

lu

fiber*
セン
siem

Used in 2+ characters:


cross*
ジュウ
jyip

mouth
コウ
kou

heart
シン
sim


big
ダイ
dai

words
ゲン
ngian

knot*
ヨウ
eu


mountain
サン
shran

rice
ベイ
mei


knock
ホク
puk


bamboo
チク
ttriuk

snake*

yi

bow
キュウ
kkiung

husband

vu

wheat*
ライ
loi


think

si

decide
カイ
kkruai

gold
キン
kkim


heaven
テン
ten

throwing hand*
シュ
jyu

household

kkra

leaf*
セイ
syei

leg
ソク
ttsiu

西
west
セイ
sei

eternity
エイ
yuang

plate
ベイ
miang

rooster*
ユウ
you

roof
オク
uk

son
ロウ
lâng


depart
キョ
kio

burn*
ゼン
njien

lord
クン
kkiun

bright
メイ
miang

empty
クウ
kung

right-hand

you

wind
フウ
fung

foot-long*
シャク
chyek

thicket
サク
buk


horn
カク
luk

field
ゲン
ngüan

night

ya

friend
ユウ
you

entire
ゼン
dzüen

bad luck
キョウ
khiûng

walk

bu


continent*
リク
liuk

shield*
テイ
yei

people
ミン
min

happy
コウ
ghrang

drum

kku


rite
シキ
syok

rise
ショウ
syong

third Heavenly Stem
ヘイ
ppiang

venerate
ケイ
kkiang

vein*

pre


scenery
ケイ
kkiang

ogre

kküî

fright*
キョウ
kkiûng

slave

nu

link
レン
lien

receive
ジュ
jyou

benefit

li

visitor
キャク
krak

clothes*
フク
nien

aware
カク
kkrau


accordance
ソク
ttsok

control
セイ
tchyei

spring
セン
dzüen

blade edge
ジン
njin

conforming
ソク
ttsiok


wife
サイ
tsei

military

mvu

patch
ケイ

鹿
deer
ロク
luk

answer
トウ
ttap


countryside
キョウ
khiâng


whole
カン
ghuan

ride
ジョウ
jyong


sake

yui


crane*
コク
ghûk

mirror*
キョウ
kkiang

chase
ツイ
ttrui

minuteness

mvî


supply
ジュウ
chyung

abode
シャ

various
ショ
tchyio


seedling
ビョウ
mieu

excellence
シュウ
siou

virtuous
ゼン
jyen

harm
ガイ
ghai

already

kkiî


province
シュウ
tchyou

beheading
ザン
tchram

bystander*
ボウ
bâng

disperse
サン
san

span
コウ
kkong


variation

chi

star
セイ
seng

fortress*
ソク

thorn

tsi

encounter
ホウ
vûng

honey*
ミチ
mit

void
キョ
khio


accede
シュウ
dziou

belt
タイ
ttai


easy
エキ
yi

follow path*
ズイ


deplete
ジン
dzin


beat
ゲキ
kek


fly rapidly
シン
ttrüei


strict
ゲン
ngiam


declare
セン
süen

chaste
テイ
ttrieng

lacquer tree
シツ
tsit

rule

kkui

splendid
カン
khuan

prolong
エン
yen

bless
ケイ
ghuei


dust*

yi

podium*
タン
ttan

overpowering
ゴウ
ghau

scorch
ショウ
ttsieu

phonetic "sa"

shra

genus
ゾク
tchyûk


ox*
チュウ
triou

signature
ショ
jyio


dread

üî

ignorance
モウ
mung

stockpile
チョ
drio

fell
バツ
vat

armor*
カイ
kiî

Sui dynasty
ズイ
zui


full*
マン
muan

guest
ヒン
ppin


gossip*
シュウ
tsip

infant
エイ
ieng

whisper
ショウ
niep

lagoon*
シャク
tsiâk

chain*
テイ
ttrüet

groan

ei

moo
ボウ
miou

overcome
コク
kok

first of the month
サク
shrâk

curve
ワン
ruan


eyelashes*
ショウ
dziep

dazzling
コウ
ghuâng


prattle
セン
tchyem

knead*
ネツ
net

hiding crocodile*
セン
dziem

Used in 1+ characters:


little feet*
ハチ
pprat


enclosure

yuî

hair
サン
siem


dusk
セキ
ziek

king
オウ
yuâng

well
セイ
ttsieng


garrison*

mou

footsteps*
コウ
ghâng

jewel
ギョク
ngiûk


enter
ニュウ
njip

what

gha

time

jyi

jar
カン
fou


left-hand

ttsa


criss-cross*
シチ
tsit

robe



horse

mra

father

fu

dancer*

mvu


turn
キョク
kiûk


degree

du

elephant
ショウ
ziâng

older brother
ケイ
khüang

wholesale
シャ
sia

move
ドウ
dung

vassal
シン
jyin


pass through
ツウ
tung

raising hands*

yio


feeling
カン
kkam

way
ドウ
dau

name
メイ
mieng

ingredient

giu

with

yi

consider
コウ
kau

many

tta

new
シン
sin

country
コク
kkuok


thick
タイ
tai

wares
ヒン
pim

dancing legs*

chyuen


place
ショ
chyio


black
コク
khok


knoll
キュウ
kiou

chart
ヒョウ
ppieu

turf*

tchyi

need
ヨウ
ieu

Luo
ラク
lâk

most
サイ
ttsuai

filial piety
コウ
khrau

active
カツ
kkuat

period
ケイ
küeng

separate
ベツ
biet

north
ホク
ppok

around
カイ
ghuoi

love
アイ
oi

count
スウ
shiu


sit

dzua

soldier
ヘイ
ppiang

likeness
ジョ
njio

resolve
カイ
ghre

lineage
ケイ
ghei

backbone

lio

help
ジョ
jio

stretched bow*
コウ
ghuong

goatee*

nji

owl*

ghu

illuminate
ショウ
tchyeu

hairs
モウ
mau

night watch
コウ
kkrang

wave

ppua

cloth

ppu

world
カイ
kkrai

teacher

shi

moral*
トク


chipped blade*
ナイ
noi

will

tchyi


different

yi

entrust
ライ
lai


abrupt
エン
iem
宿
lodging
シュク
siou

springtime
シュン
chyuin

return
レイ
tei


grade
ダン
duan

glad

khi

protect
シュ
syou

abide
ニン
njin

south
ナン
nam

Hun
キョウ
khiûng

cloud
ウン
yiun

apart

li

release
ホウ
fâng

phonetic "na"

na

bend
クツ
kkiut

pierce
カン
kkuan

beg
コツ
kiot

melancholy
ユウ
iou

concubine
ショウ
tsiep

miscellaneous
ザツ
dzap


examine
サツ
chrat
殿
hall
デン
den

duty

mvu

years old
サイ
süei


farming
ノウ
nûng

offspring

nji


tail

mvî

ten feet*
ジョウ
driâng

weak
ジャク
njiâk

captive tiger*
イン
yi

responsible
ニン
njim

go back
キャク
kiâk

node
セツ
ttset


shadow
イン
im

dare
カン
kkam

practice
シュウ
zip

deliver

ttri
退
withdraw
タイ
tuoi

summer

ghra

streak
ジョウ
deu


squadron
タイ
duoi

prefecture
ケン
ghuen


brave
ユウ
yûng

dim
コン
khuon

pavilion
テイ
deng

hot water
トウ
syâng

boot
トウ
dap

come out with
チョ
drio


splendor

ghrua

flourish
エイ
iang

bewilder
メイ
mei

amount
リョウ
liâng

emperor
コウ
ghuâng

domain
リョウ
lieng

chiku lute
チク
driuk

listen
チョウ
teng


raise
キョ
yio


alert
ビン
min


gain
エキ
iek

nun

ni

shore

pu

ash
カイ
khuoi

hope

khiî

risk
ボウ
mau

exchange
タイ
tei

guard against
カイ
kkrai

prohibit
キン
kkim

Shun
シュン
syuin

suddenly
コツ
khuot

descendant
コン
kkuon

follow through
スイ
zui

stay overnight
ハク
buâk

contain
ガン
gham

deliberation
リョ
lio

lieutenant

üî

Tang dynasty
トウ
dâng

tired of
エン
iem

suitable

ngi

tot
ヨウ
iou

grandchild
ソン
suon

stink
シュウ
chyou


soft
ジュウ
njiou

prison
ゴク
ngiûk

villa
ソウ
tchiâng


employ

ghu

ease
コウ
kâng

fresh
セン
sien

sign
チョウ
ttriong


tow
エイ
yei

how, what

nai

goose
ガン
ngran

tiger

khu

rabbit

tu


slit
コウ
kung

token
サツ
tchrat

Mengzi
モウ
mrang

livestock
チク
triou

by all means

siu

lonely

kku

season

kkui

rapid
シツ
dzit

fan
セン
syen

decline
スイ
chui

thunder
ライ
luoi

play music
ソウ
ttsou

crow

u

skewer
カン
kkruan

increasingly

yu

empress
コウ
ghou

humiliate
ジョク
njiûk

cheap
レン
liem

district
カク
kkuâk

Chu

chio

ordinary
ヨウ
yûng

superintendent
サイ
ttsoi

Lu

lu

intercalary
ジュン

comet
スイ
zui

divide
セキ
sek

murky
メイ
meng

a swallow
エン
en

Qin dynasty
シン
dzin

oppression
ギャク
ngiâk

fowl
キン
gim

zero
レイ
len

envelope
カン
gham

rhinoceros
サイ
sei

senile*

gi

pheasant

dri

report
リン
ppim


drought
カン
ghan

obstruct
チツ
ttrit